Recent Question/Assignment

Assignment Instructions for
BUSS 5300 Global Business Environment
1. Assignment Overview
BUSS5300 has two assessment items, including: (1) two continuous activities and (2) a major project with two components.
40% marks of a student’s final grade are equally split among the two continuous activities. Every student should independently complete each activity.
60% marks of the grade depends on the students’ performance in two components of the major project. One component is an oral presentation. It is worth 30% marks for the project and may be completed by a group of up to four students. Another component is a final report, which weighs 70% of the project grade. Student are allowed to complete the final report in a group of up to four students.
These assessment items will be due at:
• 17:00 pm, 31 March (Friday): Continuous activity 1
• 17:00 pm, 28 April (Friday): Continuous activity 2
• 21:00 pm, 19 May (Friday): Major project—Oral presentation (in-class) • 17:00 pm, 2 June (Friday): Major project—Final report
Details of these assessment items are available in the following pages.
2. Assessment 1: Continuous Activities (40%)
(2 activities; 1,000 words each.)
2.1. Overview
This assessment item comprises of two activities that spread across this study period. These activities are designed to allow students to apply course-related concepts to real-world settings and are equally weighted in the overall assessment value. It is essential to show your understanding of the course principles and to practice critical analyses via these activities.
For each of the two activities, course-related questions are asked, and you need to upload your responses to the Learnonline site. Due dates are specified in the Course Outline.
2.2. Basic requirements
When answering the question, you shall demonstrate:
• An understanding of the course material and/or other credible reference material relevant to the issue the question is addressing.
• The extent to which you have considered this reference material within the context of the question, and to which you propose creative, reflective, and insightful thoughts specific to the question being asked.
• The word count for your answers to each question is 1,000 words (excluding reference list). It is fine to have 10% more or less, but going beyond or below this word limit will result in deduction of possible marks.
A good academic essay
• should answer a question or task.
• should have a thesis statement (answer to the question) and an argument.
• should present or discuss something: develop a thesis via a set of closely related points by reasoning and evidence.
• should include relevant examples, supporting evidence and information from academic texts or credible sources.
The continuous activities will be marked following the criteria as mentioned above.
2.3. Tasks of the continuous activities
Activity 1. Diversification and Decoupling
Please read:
After then, write a short essay to discuss: How can companies respond to questions about diversification and decoupling?
Activity 2. Opportunity and Risk
Please read:
After then, write a short essay to delineate: How can Australian companies maintain a winning position in China, the largest emerging economy in Asia?
2.4. Structure (format)
• Introduction (100~150 words)
- to show your understanding of the issue
- to identify the different elements
- to specify terms to be defined and concepts to be explained
- to outline how the argument will be presented
- to be lucid and concise
• Development (700~800 words)
- to follow the structure outlined in the introduction
- to make a critical appraisal of both theories and evidence include your own opinion
- to follow proper referencing as per the UniSA policy
• Conclusion (100~150 words)
- to draw together the threads of the argument (e.g., your own assessment, aspects for further consideration and research)
- NOT to introduce new material
2.5. Submission
The continuous activity that you need to complete is set out on the course Learnonline site. Marks will be awarded continuously throughout the course, and each activity's mark will count towards your overall grade for the course.
Late submission penalties apply. Please refer to the Course Outline for details.
3. Assessment 2: Major Project Case Analysis (60%)
(Oral presentation 10~15 minutes 30%; final report with 3,000 words 70%.)
3.1. Overview
There are TWO components in this assessment item:
1. Oral presentation by a team of up to 4 students (i.e., one to four students).
2. A final report submitted by the team, if being completed and presented by a team, or by the student if being completed and presented by him or her.
Both components of this assignment are related to a case study. Students are required to assess the case by identifying key issues as per knowledge learned in this course and to prepare a report to the company’s top management team including CEO and other executives. In the assignment, you may identify yourself as either an internal consultant (i.e., an employee who works in a consulting department of the company) or an external consultant (i.e., a consultant of a consulting company which provides consulting services to the chosen company). Please indicate who you are in your submission.
The assignment may be based on one case selected from the following list:
• Penfold:
• TikTok:
• Tata:
• Pfizer:
• Fuyao:
• Spotify:
• Huawei:
• Infosys: • Transsion:
• Your own choice of a case:
You are allowed to use a case that you are more interested than those listed above, so long as (1) the case is relevant to this course, (2) has matters of strategic importance suited to the nature of this assignment, and (3) you have access to relevant information to undertake the assignment. If you wish to take up this option, please contact the course coordinator and obtain approval before proceeding.
For each of the cases, one theme or multiple themes should be identified with strategic importance to the company and relevant to knowledge covered in this course.
In general, your task is to:
• Identify key issue(s).
• Assess the issues by applying concepts from the course.
• Prepare a report to be submitted to the organisation’s top management team, showing: o key issues that the organisation faces about the identified theme/s.
o outcomes that the organisation should seek to achieve concerning the identified theme/s. o recommendations on what the organisation should do in order to address the issues and to achieve the outcomes you have proposed.
The audience of the presentation and the report is the company’s top management team. As such, your report needs to be prepared accordingly and has to cover strategic issues at the top management level. The report should also avoid the use of jargon from the course material - the report needs to be written in a style that is suited to the audience. What we want to see is that you can write a report in a realworld setting and with rigorous analyses. The report should deliver real-world objectives with academic evidence.
3.2. Oral presentation
Students need to form teams and develop an oral presentation on the selected case study. Students will present during the teaching period.
Students are expected to present their project in the class in person. If conditions do not allow for in- person presentations, students need to ask for the course coordinator’s approval for making a presentation video and submitting it to the Learnonline site by the deadline.
The oral presentation will involve a comprehensive analysis in which the team/student will be expected to identify key issues, evaluate the issues, and make recommendations accordingly. It is essential that your team presents an in-depth diagnosis and recommends a realistic, workable plan of action. The presentation should demonstrate a systematic analysis of the case background and context, appropriately incorporating concepts from the readings, and propose specific, actionable recommendations.
In planning your presentation, your team should assume the role of a group of management consultants presenting their findings to the company's CEO. The rest of the class will assume the role of company executives.
In the presentation, you should report to the CEO: (a) a clear action agenda in which the company may engage, (b) commitments that the CEO needs to make to the Board of Directors, and (c) directives that your team would like to seek from the CEO.
The presentation should be strictly within 10 minutes, followed by a 3-minute Q&A session if presenting in person. No Q&A session for online submission.
You are encouraged to be more creative in your presentation, aiming at presenting your ideas in a professional and interesting way. For example, you do not have to use normal aids such as PowerPoint slides, but use handwriting with a projector or perform a scenario discussion.
You may consider bringing some hard copies of presentation slides or a one-page introduction if you think hand-outs may help your audience understand your opinions. However, you do not have to do so, if you believe hand-outs may distract your audience.
Each member of the team (if in a team setting) must contribute equally, not only in preparation for the presentation but also in the actual class presentation and the question-and-answer period. Students are encouraged to fill in the Peer Evaluation Form (Appendix 1) if you wish to comment on the teamwork.
3.3. Final report
Based on the contents included in your oral presentation, all students are required to turn their teamwork on the chosen case study into a 3000-word written report. It is fine to have 10% more or less. The word count does not include references but includes the executive summary, tables and figures. Each half-page table counts 200 words, so does each half-page figure. The maximum number of figures and tables is two, respectively.
This final report must be developed from the essential work of the team, but shall be submitted by one (and only one) representative of the team. Do NOT submit duplicates.
The report should offer a detailed understanding of the nature of the case. A good case analysis should reflect the following:
1) Core problems are identified with implications for today’s global business environment.
2) Detailed theoretical applications to the problems.
3) Good rationale for the choice of problems (i.e., sound logic and justification on the choice of solutions and recommendations).
4) Feasibility and practicability of recommendations and solutions.
Please note that the Final Report will involve a comprehensive case analysis in which you will be expected to identify the key issue(s), evaluate the issues, and make recommendations accordingly. Students must present an in-depth diagnosis and recommend a realistic and workable plan of actions.
A recommended structure of the report
(i) Executive summary
(ii) Table of contents
(iii) Introduction
(iv) Key issue(s) identification
(v) Desired outcomes
(vi) Recommendations
(vii) Conclusion
(viii) References
(ix) Appendix
Road to the success of good essay writing:
• Arguments With Evidence Or Examples
• Literature Review
• Avoiding One-Sided Arguments
• Critical Reading And Research
• Avoiding Plagiarism
• Proper Referencing
• Keeping The Balance
• Submitting On Time
• Logic, Analysis And Coherence
The final report has three main components, each of which should receive approximately equal weight, although the recommendation section includes consideration of risks and tends to be more important than other sections:
• The key issues facing the organisation about the identified theme(s).
• The outcomes that the organisation should seek to achieve in relation to the identified theme/s.
• Your recommendations on what the organisation should do in order to address the issues and achieve the outcomes you have proposed.
3.4. A detailed brief of the report
3.4.1. The key issues
Key issues should be identified following thorough analyses of the company according to knowledge learned in this course. The analysing work should use multiple tools, models, and concepts covered in the course. When presenting the key issues, it is important to NOT put the detailed analysis in the body of the report – it belongs to appendices. The body of the report is not a place for a narrative of the background analysis.
What is recommended to include? Looking at the whole set of data you have collected and identifying the messages that come from it. In other words, seeking for themes across data and identifying themes important for the organisation. Obtaining evidence showing the importance of key issues. Such evidence needs to be elaborated in a concise but to-the-point discussion.
What issues are the “key”? There is no one-for-all answer to this. It depends on what you find when you take a close look at the organisation. Each case differs, and key issues identified in a case vary across students. The way leading to this part of your report could be something like, -A detailed analysis of the organisation has been conducted concerning state the themes evident in the case (see Appendices A, B, C and D) and the key issues identified are as follows: …- From here, you would present arguments as to how these issues emerge from the data and how they manifest themselves in the organisation.
When developing the key issues, please keep asking yourself, “so what? what does this mean to the organisation?” Keep digging and thinking creatively and strategically. Do not lose yourself in the symptoms of issues – keep digging for core drivers. Symptoms provide evidence of more significant things that sit behind them. Symptoms should be included in the discussion, only if you have identified evidence.
When presenting a report like this to a CEO, it is vital to sell your story and promote yourself by demonstrating what actions should be taken, why and how. Normally when developing such a report, decision-makers and other stakeholders would have been consulted along the way – it is an important process in information gathering and management of the political aspects of strategic change.
At the same time, though, unless you spell out what, why, and how actions in response to the key issues you identified – then your report will probably fail to gain traction. Thus, make your arguments for actions clear and compelling.
At this point, those who will read your report need to be disturbed to the point that they are wanting solutions to the issues that the organisation is facing – so your arguments for change need to do that disturbing.
3.4.2. Desired outcomes
The outcomes are the identified themes (goals) that the organisation should seek to achieve. Without clear goals, recommendations for actions would not gain support. Recommendations need to send an organisation somewhere and it is the goals that give this direction. This section of the report aims to set these organisational goals about the themes you have identified from the case.
When setting goals, it can be helpful to overview various options the organisation might have – the directions it could pursue and the pros and cons of these options. In the end, though, you need to nail it down to specific goals you are recommending the organisation should pursue. Do not leave it in “we could do this or that.” Take a stand and back your position. You need to sell your story – those who read your report will need to be convinced by the merits of pursuing the goals you have set.
What these goals are is something you need to think about, but remember we are dealing with things the CEO would consider in relation to the themes you have identified from the case. So, stay focused at this level. When developing your goals, do not confuse goals with recommendations. Goals are the outcome whereas recommendations are the specific actions needed to achieve the goals. If my goal was ‘To be a leading cycle racer’ measured by ‘within two years, to be being ranked in the top 10 cyclists in the racing circuit’, then how I go about achieving this is where the recommendations come in (it would be specific things like a particular training regime, entering various races, achieving various time improvement milestones, and so on).
Having a high-level goal statement is fine, but this needs to be supported by specifics. Goals need to ultimately be built on SMART criteria – do not leave your goals in a form that is too fuzzy to the point that they cannot be actioned, measured, or tracked in a meaningful way. You need to present a case as to why these goals matter – do not just list off a few ‘we should do these’ items – think through why the organisation should pursue them and make a case for your proposals.
Normally, goals will in some way address the key issues you have identified. Thus, this link should be made as appropriate in the arguments you present in support of your goals.
3.4.3. Recommendations
Your recommendations on what the organisation should do in response to the key issues and achieve the outcomes you have proposed. The recommendation section needs to pull the whole report together.
Recommendations are specific actions you are putting forward, and those that the organisation should do in order to achieve organisational goals. Such goals are related to the key issues you have identified.
Normally, to achieve specific goals, many possible actions are available (if my goal was to travel to Kakadu National Park, I could get there a number of ways: drive all the way, train/drive; fly/drive; guided tour; and so on). However, in this report, if you present a number of possible actions (which is fine to do), you need to back the ones you recommend the organisation take. Do not leave it open – put your recommendations up and back your position with a convincing argument.
What is important here is to not simply make a list of things to do. The recommendations need to:
• Address the key issues you identified at the beginning of the report.
• Contribute to the achievement of the goals you have set.
• Be specific; do not make your recommendations generalised statements. They need to be clear, actionable, and built on SMART criteria. This is very important. Often, in reports like this one, recommendations are set out as very generalised statements that could apply to any business. You need to make your recommendations specific and targeted.
Thus, when writing your report, please show not just the recommendations as “I recommend we do this,” but also show issues that each recommendation addresses and the organisational goals that it will help.
Further, some reasons as to why it will address the issues and achieve the goals are needed – you need to back your claims up and there is plenty of material in the course to help you here. So, what we have is something along the lines of -I recommend the organisation does ‘X’ add SMART criteria . It will address issue 'Y' because…. and will help contribute to goal/s 'Z' because -
All change carries a risk – so does without-change. Whatever you put up as goals and recommendations in your report will carry risk, both financial and other forms of risk. As part of your report, you will need to set out what the key risks are and provide a management plan for addressing those risks.
3.4.4. Referencing
With your report, our focus is on the quality of the content relevant to the nature of the report itself (its purpose, its target audience). In short, though, referencing should be used in the body of your report where:
(a) statements of fact are being presented (to show the source of the stated fact),
(b) where you are arguing something and drawing on someone's work to support your case, or (c) where you are directly quoting material from another source.
If you quote directly from a source that is not developed and/or owned by you, you MUST place the quote in “quotation marks” and reference the source in a correct format. For example, “have a nice day” (Jones et al 2013, p23). As a general rule though, direct quotes should be kept to a minimum level and you should always write in your own words.
When referencing your work, the reference needs to be directly linked to the text in question. Normally a reference would be linked to a single sentence or, at most, a short paragraph. If the source material spills into additional paragraphs or additional sections in a table, then the reference should be shown again to ensure this close link between reference and text, or the discussion would include the reference source; e.g., “Jones goes on to describe how ...... ”.
The appendices, which set out your background analyses, are expected to have full referencing of the source of your material. Where this referencing is not done, problems may arise from an academic integrity perspective which could see flow-on implications for completing this course.
On the course Learnonline site, there is an ‘Academic Integrity’ discussion so please check this out if you have any doubts about referencing requirements.
3.4.5. Executive summary
An executive summary is intended to:
• Provide a brief overview of the whole report so that the person receiving it could read the executive summary alone without reading the whole accompanying report.
• Allow the reader to quickly understand the information contained in the report.
• Persuade the reader that the document is worthy of his/her time.
• Provide concise, complete, specific and self-sufficient information that can be understood in isolation.
It should briefly state the purpose/aim of the report and set out all of the key points contained in the report that you want to get across to the reader. The executive summary is normally about 1 page in length and is normally placed before the Table of Contents. The sequence of content for the executive summary should follow the same sequence as in the body of the report. It is normally best to write the executive summary once the body of the report is written.
3.4.6. ‘Introduction’
The introduction sets out why the report is being written and briefly outlines the areas the report covers so the reader knows what to expect. This will normally be one or two short paragraphs.
3.4.7. ‘Conclusion’
The conclusion should wrap-up the report; bring it to an end with the key summary points you wish to make, which may include a call to action. It would normally be one or two short paragraphs.
3.4.8. Appendices
Concerning the appendices, what is required in appendices are details of your analysis work that gave rise to the issues you have pulled into the body of the report. This may include analysis work based on any number of tools and models that you think are useful for the matter at hand. It's up to you which tools you use. In the appendices, only include details of your own analyses with depth and substance to the background that supports the overall report. Do not include items that are simply copy-paste from a web site, or a copy of an article, report extract and so on; these are reference items, not items for the appendices.
4. Further Information about the Assignment
4.1. Collection and use of data
Assignments on your own workplace
If you do a major assignment for this course in your own workplace, you must seek permission from your employer prior to commencing the assignment. A copy of the assignment cannot be given to any party other than your employer unless your employer agrees in writing for this to be done.
If a copy of the assignment is provided to your employer, or to any other party beyond course assessment purposes, all reference to UniSA, the program of study, and the course itself must first be removed from the report. The report must not be presented as a UniSA report or be linked to UniSA in any way.
Assignments on other businesses or settings
If you work on the major assignment based on an organisation or situation other than your own organisation and, in doing so, you intend to gather the information that is not otherwise publicly available, you must:
(i) Discuss your proposed assignment with your course facilitator prior to commencing any work on it. A copy of your proposed statement of disclosure must be provided to and approved by, your course facilitator prior to your proceeding with the assignment.
(ii) Give the party providing you information a written statement of disclosure setting out:
a. The capacity in which you are acting; this will usually be “I am seeking information in my capacity as a student undertaking university study”.
b. The purpose for which the information will be used; usually “The information will be used as part of a university course report to be submitted for assessment”.
c. Who will receive a copy of the report; normally this will be “The report will not to be used for any other purpose other than for university course assessment”.
d. There may be instances where the report might be provided to another party, such as an organisation that is the focus of the assignment i.e.: “The report will be used for university course assessment and will be provided to XYZ”.
e. Confidentiality and anonymity protocols: normally this will be “Information will not be requested that is personal to you and no references will be included in the report that could directly or knowingly identify you as the source of information”.
f. The name and contact details of the School’s Academic Integrity Officer with an invitation for the person to contact the AI Officer if any matters of concern arise: “If you have any concerns with the gathering or use of information please contact the Academic Integrity Officer, email:
(iii) Where a report is provided to another party beyond course assessment purposes, all reference to UniSA, the program of study, and the course itself, must first be removed from the report. The report must not be presented as a UniSA report or be linked to UniSA in any way.
4.2. Late submission and extensions
One of the important skills your studies can help you develop that is important for your professional career is time management and being able to deliver on-time. It’s also important for all students in the class to be treated equally, with the same rules applying to all without favour or preference given to one student over another.
When it comes to extensions, these will only be given in accordance with the provisions set out in UniSA policy which are discussed in the Course Outline as follows:
Variations to assessment tasks
Variation to assessment methods, tasks and timelines may be provided in:
Unexpected or exceptional circumstances, for example bereavement, unexpected illness (details of unexpected or exceptional circumstances for which variation may be considered are discussed in clauses 7.8 - 7.10 of the Assessment Policy and Procedures Manual). Variation to assessment in unexpected or exceptional circumstances should be discussed with your course coordinator as soon as possible.
Special circumstances, for example, religious observance grounds, or community services
(details of special circumstances for which variation can be considered are discussed in clause 7.11 of the Assessment Policy and Procedures Manual). Variations to assessment in expected circumstances must be requested within the first two weeks of the course (or equivalent for accelerated or intensive teaching).
Please find the Assessment Policy and Procedures Manual on
If you are facing some problems that may impact on your ability to submit an assessment on time, please contact your lecturer as soon as possible and well before the due date. Do not leave it until the last minute or until after the assessment is due.
Requests for extensions based on things like travel, forgetting a deadline, or workloads, will NOT normally be granted.
The marking penalty for late submissions is 10% per day, with no mark awarded if an item is submitted more than 7 days late.
If you have any questions or need clarification about this issue, please speak to your course facilitator. He will gladly help you.
4.3. Assessment activities and making them your own work
Copying someone else’s work is a breach of Academic Integrity and is a serious matter. Here is what the Course Outline has to say about AI: please make sure you are fully informed about it:
Academic Integrity
Academic integrity is the foundation of university life and is fundamental to the reputation of UniSA and its staff and students. Academic integrity means a commitment by all staff and students to act with honesty, trustworthiness, fairness, respect and responsibility in all academic work.
An important part of practising integrity in academic work is showing respect for other people's ideas, and being honest about how they have contributed to your work. This means taking care not to represent the work of others as your own. Using another person's work without proper acknowledgement is considered Academic Misconduct, and the University takes this very seriously.
The University of South Australia expects students to demonstrate the highest standards of academic integrity so that its degrees are earned honestly and are trusted and valued by its students and their employers. To ensure this happens, the University has policies and procedures in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. For example, work submitted electronically by students for assessment will be examined for copied and un-referenced text using the text comparison software Turnitin
More information about academic integrity and what constitutes academic misconduct can be found in Section 9 of the Assessment Policies and Procedures Manual. The Academic Integrity Module explains in more detail how students can work with integrity at the University’s website.
If anything is unclear about this issue, please speak to your course coordinator.
Appendix 1
Confidential Peer Evaluation Form
Your name & Student ID:
As a confidential form, this evaluation will not be shared with other students. The teaching team will keep all comments confidential and use them for the assessment only.
Your individual marks of the report will be adjusted if your individual peer- evaluation assessment is lower than 24 points (out of a total of 40 points).
Should you fall below an average of 24 points, you would receive only 60% of the total marks allocated to your group report.
You are requested to indicate a point out of 10 for each criterion and for each member of your group including yourself.
You should submit this form via the final report submission link on Learnonline by the due date. Without submitting this form means that you are happy with performance of all group members.
Group Members (Student ID) Yourself
Suggesting ideas [0~10 points]
Participating in group activities (e.g., attendance at group meetings, contribution to discussions) [0~10 points]
Performing tasks (0~10 points)
Helping the group to work as a team (eg. Communicating with others, Timely completion of tasks) [0~10 points]
TOTAL [0~40 points]
Comments: (If you give any member 7pts or less on any item, please provide reasons)
Appendix 2:
BUSS 5300 Global Business Environment
Assessment: Oral Presentation Student name (ID):
Key components of this assessment Weighting of each component Grade (tick relevant box) *
Comment by marker
• Comprehension: knowledge of topic and accuracy of answers
• Content: coverage of information and questions answered 40% HD
• Visual Appeal: spelling, grammar; punctuation, and visualised information
• Presentation Skills: audience engagement, speaking volume and body language
• Preparedness & Participation:
presenters’ participation, interaction, and awareness of the topic 60% HD
Summary comment:
Assignment Grade: (circle relevant grade) H D D C P1 P2 F1 F2
Appendix 3:
BUSS 5300
Assessment: Continuous Activity Report Student Name (ID):
Key components of this assessment Weigh Grade Comment by the marker
Demonstrated the key things you have learned from the required reading/case studies and have answered the question asked under each activity requirement.
• Your answer demonstrates:
(i) An understanding of the course material and/or other credible reference material relevant to the issue(s) the question is addressing.
(ii) The extent to which you have considered the reference material within the context of the question, and to propose creative, reflective and insightful thoughts specific to the question being asked. 80% HD
Format, Style & Referencing:
Appropriate format; Succinct writing; Use of creative writing methods (charts, tables, or figures); Appropriate referencing when applicable
Legible and well set out; Arguments presented in a clear and logical manner; Well developed with supporting evidence for arguments; Correct grammar; Absence of typos, incomplete sentences, and confusing expressions 20% HD
Summary comment:
Assignment Grade: (circle relevant grade) HD D C P1 P2 F1 F2
Appendix 4:
Assessment Feedback
BUSS5300 Global Business Environment
Assessment: Final Project Student Name (ID):
Key components of this assessment Weight Grade Comment by the marker
A clear focus on the relevant issues.
Quality of information content with relevant supportive data and figures/tables/charts.
Effective and appropriate application of relevant literature, concepts and frameworks including theories to analyse the issues and strategies.
Your arguments are directly related to your stated theme for exploration, the business possibilities and workable action plan. 50% HD
Appropriate strategies for business development in the context of your particular case study.
Business recommendations and rationale for the recommendations are discussed; there is a clear link between your recommendations and the interpretation and synthesis of your analysis and research focus of your theme.
Business risk identification and risk mitigation strategies are clearly presented. 30% HD
Format, Style & Referencing: Appropriate format; Succinct writing; Use of creative writing methods (charts, tables, or figures); Appropriate referencing when applicable
Presentation: Legible and well set out; Arguments presented in a clear and logical manner; Well developed with supporting evidence for arguments; Correct grammar; Absence of typos, incomplete sentences, and confusing expressions 20% HD
Summary comment:
Assignment Grade: (circle relevant grade) HD D C P1 P2 F1 F2