Recent Question/Assignment

Health Economics
Assessment 2
__________________________________________________________________________ Background
Modules 1 to 4 have provided an overview of economic principles and concepts, and the eTest was based on these modules. In Module 5, behavioural economics was covered, a recent field of economics dealing with how human behaviour deviates from the model of homo economicus or rational man.
Modules 6 to 9 build on earlier modules to explore the economics of the health system. These modules provide insight into how alternative approaches to financing and organizing health care, together with health system governance, impact on key performance indicators such as universal health coverage, efficiency and equity. The economic perspective alone is not sufficient to unravel the complexities influencing health system performance, but health economics provides important tools and ways of thinking that contribute to good strategy development and policymaking. Important too is the context within which health systems are situated and the political economy shaping the interrelationships and power dynamics within a society.
A framework developed and refined over several years provides guidance on how to examine a country’s health financing system, which is dependent also on the other components namely governance, service delivery and resource generation. This framework also facilitates consideration of where the system is performing well or poorly, the challenges experienced, and issues to address in future health system reform. The original framework was presented by Kutzin (2013 – see below); an expanded version was published recently by Rajan et al (2022). Both frameworks will be explained further in Modules 6 to 9 (Cluster 3) of the unit.
Kutzin J. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2013;91:602-611.
Rajan D, et al. Health system performance assessment: A primer for policy-makers. 2022;Geneva: World Health Organization (Policy Brief 49).
Another useful document to consult in tackling this assessment is the McIntyre and Kutzin (2016) report, see below.
McIntyre D, Kutzin J. Health financing country diagnostic: a foundation for national strategy development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 (Health Financing Guidance No 1).
Assignment question
Using the Rajan et al. framework, together with the knowledge and skills you are acquiring in this unit, prepare a PowerPoint presentation that provides a critical analysis of health system financing in one of the low- or lower-middle income countries shown on page 5. The income status of countries is defined by the World Bank.
Each PowerPoint slide must have corresponding text written on the notes section of the slide where you discuss in more depth the points presented on the slide. This discussion must be written using correct grammar and sentence structure in the same way as required in a written assignment. References must be included in the text in the notes section but not on the PowerPoint slides.
The PowerPoint presentation is to contain a maximum of 20 slides (excluding the references). The text on the notes pages must not exceed 2500 words; any word count over 3,000 words will not be marked
In particular, you must include the following issues in your presentation and discussion:
(i) Key contextual factors influencing health financing policy and attainment of policy goals
(ii) Health expenditure indicators and sources of finance
(iii) An overview of health financing arrangements including revenue collection mechanisms, pooling of fund, purchasing arrangements (if possible), and the ‘health benefit package’ available from public funding or other prepayment mechanisms (if relevant)
(iv) Mechanisms by which health financing arrangements contribute to achieving the intermediate objectives and final goals of universal health coverage
(v) Relevant associations between other functions of the health system (governance, service delivery and resource generation) and financing
Other issues may be discussed also, for example, in what ways have global policy, ideology and interest groups influenced health financing.
The assignment should be a critical analysis of health financing arrangements of the country of your choice rather than just a description.
The presentation component of the assignment should be uploaded to Blackboard as a
PowerPoint (not PDF) file. Please label the file as follows: student number_country_ass2_2024.
You are not required to make an actual oral presentation. In addition to including the text on the notes section of the slides, please cut and paste the text from slides into a MSWord document with the appropriate headings included and submit through Turnitin. Please label this file as above.
If any student is unsure of how to prepare a PowerPoint presentation, or how to include text on the notes pages, please contact the unit coordinator ( by email or phone (0413929553).
The assignment will be marked using the rubric shown on the next page.
Due date
The due date for the assignment is Friday 10th May 2024 at 17:00 (AWST).
Marking rubric
Category Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Good Exceptional
Organisation and style
[4 marks] Sequence of information is difficult to follow. No apparent structure or continuity. Purpose of work not clearly stated. Work is hard to follow with little continuity. Purpose is stated but does not assist in following work. Information is presented in a
reasonably logical manner with some continuity. Purpose
is stated and assists somewhat in following work. Information is presented in a logical manner which is easily followed. Purpose is clearly stated and assists in following the structure of the work. Information is presented in a logical, interesting way, which is easy to follow. Purpose is clearly stated and explains the structure of the work.
Content and knowledge (including
[8 marks] No grasp of information. Clearly no knowledge of the subject matter. Insufficient use of references. Uncomfortable with content. Only basic concepts demonstrated.
Inadequate list of references or references in text. Reasonable knowledge of the subject but lacking in explanation and elaboration. Minor inadequacies in reference list or references in text. At ease with content and able to elaborate and explain to some degree.
Reference section adequate including use of in text references Demonstration of full knowledge of the subject with explanations and elaboration. Reference section complete and comprehensive. Good in text referencing.
Originality and
critical thinking
[8 marks] Topic explored at surface level providing little insight and/or information beyond basic facts. ‘Rehash’ of other people’s ideas and little attempt at original thought. Some insight provided in regard to content discussed. Attempt at interpretation made on a few slides.
Reasonable interpretation and analysis of facts. Some originality and inventiveness shown. Topic explored in acceptable depth. Some ability to analyse and interpret information demonstrated. Some originality shown and material presented in an interesting way. Topic explored in depth yielding a rich awareness of topic. Demonstration of considerable creative/ original (but realistic) thought in synthesis of knowledge.
[2 marks] No or unsatisfactory conclusion presented. A few points made in conclusion, but these linked poorly to content of presentation. Reasonable summary of main points. Good summary of main point and relevant conclusion(s) drawn. Good summary of main points.
Arguments drawn
together into a final conclusion. Provided a strong and powerful finish.
Academic standard
(including spelling
and grammar)
[4 marks] Many spelling and/or grammar errors.
Sentences not clear. Some spelling and/or grammar errors. Sentences generally clear but may have awkward structure or unclear content. A few spelling and/or grammar errors. Sentences generally clear but a few may be awkward with punctuation errors. Few spelling or grammar errors. Good clarity of language and reasonable sentence structure. No spelling or grammar errors. Outstanding clarity of language and sentence structure.
Format and
aesthetics of slides
[4 marks] Scant attention to layout of slides. No images or images do not add value. Some attention paid to layout of slides but could be improved. Few images only, images inappropriate or do not add much value. Layout of slides is acceptable. Reasonable use of images. Layout of slides is good. Images are appropriate and use
of images is satisfactory. Layout of slides is excellent with slides not cluttered. Images are appropriate and add value to the presentation.
Overall [30 marks] Unacceptable (0)
List of low- and lower middle income countries
Country Region
Ethiopia Sub-Saharan Africa
Madagascar Sub-Saharan Africa
Mali Sub-Saharan Africa
Malawi Sub-Saharan Africa
Rwanda Sub-Saharan Africa
Sierra Leone Sub-Saharan Africa
Somalia Sub-Saharan Africa
Uganda Sub-Saharan Africa
Zambia Sub-Saharan Africa
Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan Africa