Recent Question/Assignment

You will answer ALL questions related to that scenario. Answers to the questions must thoroughly include the correct answers with details including terminology, anatomy, histology, and/or physiology as it applies to what you learned in the class. You may use the internet, your textbook, or the Canvas module to determine your answers to these questions, but make sure you apply the terms and concepts from class. You are also allowed to email me questions about the project, but I will not be able to check or verify your answers. I will answer clarifying questions and let you know if you are thinking in the right direction about the question.
Scenario:
Part I:
Brad is a 74 year old male who was sitting playing chess when his left side of his face started drooping and he had trouble seeing out of his left eye. He then realized he couldn’t move his left arm either. He was also having difficulty speaking. His friend, growing concerned, kept asking Brad if he was feeling well. Brad grew angry and had a difficult time understanding what was going on. His friend decided to call 9-1-1. When paramedics arrived, they realized Brad was having a stroke.
? Based on these symptoms, which parts of the central nervous system were potentially damaged in the situation? Explain your answers by describing the function that is impaired for that structure. Complete the table below to display your answers (You will need to identify at least TWO areas affected for complete credit.)
Structures of the CNS affected Explanation of function
? Based on these symptoms, which cranial and spinal nerves may be affected for this patient? Explain your answers by describing the function that is impaired for that nerve. Complete the table below to display your answers (You will need to identify at least TWO nerves affected for complete credit.)
Nerves affected Explanation of function
Part II:
The doctors admitted Brad into the hospital for tests and monitoring his condition. While in the hospital, they discovered his left antebrachial region started to improve in mobility; however, he was still having issues with flexion of his radiocarpal and interphalangeal joints, but his pollux was able to do flexion.
Identify the muscles we discussed that would be affected in this situation?
Part III:
Unfortunately, one night Brad tried to get out of bed to go to the bathroom and fell out of the bed. When he fell, he hit his left lateral thoracic region hard. When the doctors did an x-ray, they found the following two broken bones. (See x-ray below.)
Part IV:
Brad suffered another setback when his manus started to develop contracture, where the muscles were continually contracting causing his hands to stiffen and curl up. Doctors wanted to stop the contracture, so they decided to try bo-tox injections, which are targeting the nerve, to stop the muscle contractions. Using what you know about neurotransmission and muscle contraction, explain the following:
A. What neurotransmitter would be involved and what would happen to it when bo-tox is injected?
B. When muscle contraction stops, what would the calcium levels in the cell do?
C. What would happen to the myosin head groups when contraction stops?
D. What parts of the sarcomere would get larger?
Part V:
Brad has been in the hospital for a while now and has started to develop bed sores. His skin on his gluteal and lumbar regions have lost the epidermal layer completely.
A. Identify the layers of the integumentary system IN ORDER from external to internal that are no longer present.
B. Identify the histology of the skin removed in the situation.
C. Thinking about the part of skin that is removed specifically in this situation, what function would be affected most? (HINT: Think about your answer to parts A and B.) Explain how you determined this answer.
Part VI:
Earlier we mentioned Brad’s vision was affected by the stroke. Unfortunately, he seems to have issues primarily with his peripheral vision in his left eye only.
A. What muscle would be most affected in helping him with his peripheral vision?
B. What cranial nerve could be affected (based on your answer in part A)?
C. To compensate for the lack of vision on his lateral left side, Brad turns his neck to the left. Which muscles would he be contracting to turn his head?
D. Which cranial nerve would be involved in part C?