please use single digit number as 9

and double digit as 39 and thickness should be 19.5mm, so for for your reference

Assignment (Fluid Mechanics MECH2002)

This project is supported by Jacobs Engineering Group. 1- Design Water Network Supply

You require to design a water pipeline to transfer water from reservoir A to reservoir B in a suburb in Sydney. The pipeline will be installed near the ground surface. The design uses the ground profile that shows the reduced level (RL) measured from a fixed point versus chainage or distance (CH). The RL is taken using Google Earth Pro and varies between reservoir A and reservoir B which are distanced apart by 19.6 km as shown in Fig. 1. The junctions are labelled from J1 to J32.

While the base of reservoir A (R1) is RL80 m, its top water level (TWL) is at RL10N m where N value is based on the last digit of your student ID. For example, a student with ID 41234565 uses N=5 and hence RL105 m. Reservoir B surface level is set at RL75 m. The pipeline includes steel pipes with an outside diameter of 450mm and a wall thickness of e. To compute e, you should use half of the last two-digit number of your student ID. For example, a student with ID 41234565 uses 65 that will equate to a 32.5mm thickness. According to Australian Standard Design Charts for Water Supply and Sewerage (AS2200), the roughness for steel is in a range of 0.01 mm-0.06 mm. The lower value in the range represents the expected value for clean, new pipes while the higher value in the range applies to the used pipes. Students with odd student ID numbers should consider new pipes while students with even student ID numbers must consider used pipes in their design. The system involves a number of valves and fitting between each segment as presented in Table 1. These fitting and valves cause minor losses. You require to compute the total K factor (???? for each segment.

Two design options are available: (A) gravity system and (B) pressurised system. The gravity system uses the elevation to achieve the design requirements while the pressurised system uses a pump to meet the design requirements. For both design options, you require to obtain pipes’ length and elevation. For this purpose, you can use WebPlotDigitizer to extract RL and CH for junction J1 to J32 from Fig. 1. The pipe length for each segment can be then obtained – e.g. for

1

Segment 1 (P-1): ??????????h1 = ((????2 - ????1)2 + (????2 - ????1)2)2

Part A: Determine the feasibility of conveying water via a gravity system pipeline (50 marks).

1. Considering reservoir TWL is at RL10Nm, model the arrangement in EPANET. The N value is based on the last digit of your student ID. A snapshot of the model should be presented in the report (5 marks). A table showing the CH and RL for junctions and segment length should be also presented. Note: pipe inside diameter should be used in the model which can be obtained using the given outer diameter and the pipe thickness (5 marks).

2. Determine the flow rate delivered at reservoir B in MLD (Mega-litter per day) and discuss the answer (5 marks).

3. Plot the hydraulic grade line (HGL) between reservoir A and reservoir B. For this purpose, you should collect the total head at each node and plot it versus CH. You must also show the ground profile on the same plot. The axes must have labels with proper units. Discuss the observed HGL trend (10 marks).

4. A hand calculation for the variation of the total head from the reservoir to J3 should be presented. You should use the Moody diagram to find the friction factor. Compare the hand calculation with the model output and discuss the results (10 marks).

5. Evaluate whether the HGL intersects with the ground profile at any point. This evaluation allows determining if the gravity system pipeline will work. Support your answer by proper discussion (5 marks)

6. Find minimum reservoir A TWL to ensure HGL remain at least 1.5m above all points shown in ground surface profile elevation. You must plot HGL and ground profile for the new TWL (10 marks).

Part B: Design a pressurised system by introducing a pump. Assume reservoir A TWL is RL8N m and reservoir B surface level is set at RL 90 m. The N value is based on the last digit of your student ID. For example, a student with ID 41234565 uses N=5 and hence RL85 m. The pump is located at J1 and the pump curve is given in Fig. 2 (40 marks).

1. Plot system curve for a range of flow rates Q=10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 MLD. The system curve is computed as

?? ??2

???? = (??2 - ??1) + (?? ?? + S??) 2 ????2

where ?? is the total pipe length, ?? is the pipe internal diameter, ?? is the pipe area, ?? =

9.81 ??/??2 is the gravity and ?? can be found from the Moody diagram using the

Reynolds number and the pipe roughness. ??2 - ??1 is the elevation difference between

2

reservoir A and reservoir B. The kinematic viscosity of water is 1.1E-06 m2/s. Create a table, presenting ??, ??, ??, S??, ?? and ???? for each flow rate (15 marks).

2. Overlay the pump curve with the system curve and determine the operating point (10 marks).

3. Run model in EPANET by setting up the pump and introducing the pump curve. Plot the HGL between two reservoirs. Obtain the flow rate, its difference from the operating point and discuss the results (15 marks).

Report format (10 marks)

• You must provide a professional typed report for the client. The report must be submitted in PDF format electronically on iLearn with a cover page.

• The report must be concise. Use proper headers to organise the report. Irrelevant material and blurry, unclear figures must be avoided. Use captions and labels for figures and tables. Support your design and calculations with a proper discussion.

• The report must include a table at the beginning that shows the calculation of the pipe’s internal diameter and selected roughness. There is a 50% deduction if these two parameters do not match your student ID number.

Figure 1: Ground profile between the reservoir and the construction dam.

Figure 2 Pump performance curve.

4

Table 1: Fitting and valves for each segment. The K factors are 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 for Elbow 90deg, Elbow 45deg and Gate Valve, respectively.

Joint Segment (pipe) Elbow 90deg (ELL-90deg) Elbow 45deg (ELL-45deg) Gate Valve

R1

J1 R1-J1

J2 P-1 4 1

J3 P-2 1 1

J4 P-3 1

J5 P-4 1 1

J6 P-5 1

J7 P-6 2 1

J8 P-7 1

J9 P-8 1

J10 P-9 1

J11 P-10 1

J12 P-11 1

J13 P-12 1

J14 P-13 2 1

J15 P-14 4 1

J16 P-15 1

J17 P-16 1

J18 P-17 1

J19 P-18 2 1

J20 P-19 1

J21 P-20 2 1

J22 P-21 2 1

J23 P-22 1

J24 P-23 2 1

J25 P-24 1

J26 P-25 1

J27 P-26 2 1

J28 P-27 1

J29 P-28 1

J30 P-29 2 1

J31 P-30 1

J32 P-31 1

R2 J32-R21

2- Software

• You must install EPANET which is a software application to model water distribution systems. EPANET is public domain software that can be freely copied and distributed. It is a Windows®-based program that will work with all versions of Windows.

• To learn how to use EPANET, watch YouTube EPANET tutorials, i.e. EPANET Tutorial 1 to 02.09. To become familiar with options in EPANET, you can use Help toolbar (the shortcut key is F1).

• The ground profile is obtained using Google Erth Pro.

• You must use WebPlotDigitizer to extract RL and CH from the ground profile.

3- Modelling steps

1. Set units: Ensure units are consistent (Project- Defaults- Hydraulic). Check the guideline to provide each parameter with its correct unit. A snapshot is shown in Fig 3.

Figure 3 Metric units for different parameters

2. Set model: Ensure the headloss formula is set as Darcy–Weisbach (Project- Defaults Hydraulic DW).

3. Insert components: Add reservoir, junctions, and pipes.

Reservoir: Select Reservoir. Set the elevation as given.

Junctions: select Junctions, insert them and set their elevation as given.

Pipes: select Pipe, connect all junctions and set their length, diameter, roughness and loss coefficient (S??). Since the pipe diameter and roughness do not vary in the system, it is more convenient to revise the default values (Project Defaults- Properties).

Pump: Insert the Pump between the Reservoir and J1. Then, select the Curve from the Data Browser to add the pump curve (Figure 4). Finally, you should assign the pump curve ID to the pump (Figure 5).

Figure 4 Pump curve.

Figure 5 Pump properties.

4. Run the model to obtain, pressure, total head and flow rates in the system.

5. You can use Table Selection to collect required information such as the head.

6. Under Table Selection, Head and Pressure are provided in Network Nodes whereas Flow Rate and Velocity can be found using Network Links (Figure 6)

Figure 6 Table Selection.

7. Data from Table Selection, can be copied to an excel file (Edit- Copy To)

and double digit as 39 and thickness should be 19.5mm, so for for your reference

Assignment (Fluid Mechanics MECH2002)

This project is supported by Jacobs Engineering Group. 1- Design Water Network Supply

You require to design a water pipeline to transfer water from reservoir A to reservoir B in a suburb in Sydney. The pipeline will be installed near the ground surface. The design uses the ground profile that shows the reduced level (RL) measured from a fixed point versus chainage or distance (CH). The RL is taken using Google Earth Pro and varies between reservoir A and reservoir B which are distanced apart by 19.6 km as shown in Fig. 1. The junctions are labelled from J1 to J32.

While the base of reservoir A (R1) is RL80 m, its top water level (TWL) is at RL10N m where N value is based on the last digit of your student ID. For example, a student with ID 41234565 uses N=5 and hence RL105 m. Reservoir B surface level is set at RL75 m. The pipeline includes steel pipes with an outside diameter of 450mm and a wall thickness of e. To compute e, you should use half of the last two-digit number of your student ID. For example, a student with ID 41234565 uses 65 that will equate to a 32.5mm thickness. According to Australian Standard Design Charts for Water Supply and Sewerage (AS2200), the roughness for steel is in a range of 0.01 mm-0.06 mm. The lower value in the range represents the expected value for clean, new pipes while the higher value in the range applies to the used pipes. Students with odd student ID numbers should consider new pipes while students with even student ID numbers must consider used pipes in their design. The system involves a number of valves and fitting between each segment as presented in Table 1. These fitting and valves cause minor losses. You require to compute the total K factor (???? for each segment.

Two design options are available: (A) gravity system and (B) pressurised system. The gravity system uses the elevation to achieve the design requirements while the pressurised system uses a pump to meet the design requirements. For both design options, you require to obtain pipes’ length and elevation. For this purpose, you can use WebPlotDigitizer to extract RL and CH for junction J1 to J32 from Fig. 1. The pipe length for each segment can be then obtained – e.g. for

1

Segment 1 (P-1): ??????????h1 = ((????2 - ????1)2 + (????2 - ????1)2)2

Part A: Determine the feasibility of conveying water via a gravity system pipeline (50 marks).

1. Considering reservoir TWL is at RL10Nm, model the arrangement in EPANET. The N value is based on the last digit of your student ID. A snapshot of the model should be presented in the report (5 marks). A table showing the CH and RL for junctions and segment length should be also presented. Note: pipe inside diameter should be used in the model which can be obtained using the given outer diameter and the pipe thickness (5 marks).

2. Determine the flow rate delivered at reservoir B in MLD (Mega-litter per day) and discuss the answer (5 marks).

3. Plot the hydraulic grade line (HGL) between reservoir A and reservoir B. For this purpose, you should collect the total head at each node and plot it versus CH. You must also show the ground profile on the same plot. The axes must have labels with proper units. Discuss the observed HGL trend (10 marks).

4. A hand calculation for the variation of the total head from the reservoir to J3 should be presented. You should use the Moody diagram to find the friction factor. Compare the hand calculation with the model output and discuss the results (10 marks).

5. Evaluate whether the HGL intersects with the ground profile at any point. This evaluation allows determining if the gravity system pipeline will work. Support your answer by proper discussion (5 marks)

6. Find minimum reservoir A TWL to ensure HGL remain at least 1.5m above all points shown in ground surface profile elevation. You must plot HGL and ground profile for the new TWL (10 marks).

Part B: Design a pressurised system by introducing a pump. Assume reservoir A TWL is RL8N m and reservoir B surface level is set at RL 90 m. The N value is based on the last digit of your student ID. For example, a student with ID 41234565 uses N=5 and hence RL85 m. The pump is located at J1 and the pump curve is given in Fig. 2 (40 marks).

1. Plot system curve for a range of flow rates Q=10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 MLD. The system curve is computed as

?? ??2

???? = (??2 - ??1) + (?? ?? + S??) 2 ????2

where ?? is the total pipe length, ?? is the pipe internal diameter, ?? is the pipe area, ?? =

9.81 ??/??2 is the gravity and ?? can be found from the Moody diagram using the

Reynolds number and the pipe roughness. ??2 - ??1 is the elevation difference between

2

reservoir A and reservoir B. The kinematic viscosity of water is 1.1E-06 m2/s. Create a table, presenting ??, ??, ??, S??, ?? and ???? for each flow rate (15 marks).

2. Overlay the pump curve with the system curve and determine the operating point (10 marks).

3. Run model in EPANET by setting up the pump and introducing the pump curve. Plot the HGL between two reservoirs. Obtain the flow rate, its difference from the operating point and discuss the results (15 marks).

Report format (10 marks)

• You must provide a professional typed report for the client. The report must be submitted in PDF format electronically on iLearn with a cover page.

• The report must be concise. Use proper headers to organise the report. Irrelevant material and blurry, unclear figures must be avoided. Use captions and labels for figures and tables. Support your design and calculations with a proper discussion.

• The report must include a table at the beginning that shows the calculation of the pipe’s internal diameter and selected roughness. There is a 50% deduction if these two parameters do not match your student ID number.

Figure 1: Ground profile between the reservoir and the construction dam.

Figure 2 Pump performance curve.

4

Table 1: Fitting and valves for each segment. The K factors are 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 for Elbow 90deg, Elbow 45deg and Gate Valve, respectively.

Joint Segment (pipe) Elbow 90deg (ELL-90deg) Elbow 45deg (ELL-45deg) Gate Valve

R1

J1 R1-J1

J2 P-1 4 1

J3 P-2 1 1

J4 P-3 1

J5 P-4 1 1

J6 P-5 1

J7 P-6 2 1

J8 P-7 1

J9 P-8 1

J10 P-9 1

J11 P-10 1

J12 P-11 1

J13 P-12 1

J14 P-13 2 1

J15 P-14 4 1

J16 P-15 1

J17 P-16 1

J18 P-17 1

J19 P-18 2 1

J20 P-19 1

J21 P-20 2 1

J22 P-21 2 1

J23 P-22 1

J24 P-23 2 1

J25 P-24 1

J26 P-25 1

J27 P-26 2 1

J28 P-27 1

J29 P-28 1

J30 P-29 2 1

J31 P-30 1

J32 P-31 1

R2 J32-R21

2- Software

• You must install EPANET which is a software application to model water distribution systems. EPANET is public domain software that can be freely copied and distributed. It is a Windows®-based program that will work with all versions of Windows.

• To learn how to use EPANET, watch YouTube EPANET tutorials, i.e. EPANET Tutorial 1 to 02.09. To become familiar with options in EPANET, you can use Help toolbar (the shortcut key is F1).

• The ground profile is obtained using Google Erth Pro.

• You must use WebPlotDigitizer to extract RL and CH from the ground profile.

3- Modelling steps

1. Set units: Ensure units are consistent (Project- Defaults- Hydraulic). Check the guideline to provide each parameter with its correct unit. A snapshot is shown in Fig 3.

Figure 3 Metric units for different parameters

2. Set model: Ensure the headloss formula is set as Darcy–Weisbach (Project- Defaults Hydraulic DW).

3. Insert components: Add reservoir, junctions, and pipes.

Reservoir: Select Reservoir. Set the elevation as given.

Junctions: select Junctions, insert them and set their elevation as given.

Pipes: select Pipe, connect all junctions and set their length, diameter, roughness and loss coefficient (S??). Since the pipe diameter and roughness do not vary in the system, it is more convenient to revise the default values (Project Defaults- Properties).

Pump: Insert the Pump between the Reservoir and J1. Then, select the Curve from the Data Browser to add the pump curve (Figure 4). Finally, you should assign the pump curve ID to the pump (Figure 5).

Figure 4 Pump curve.

Figure 5 Pump properties.

4. Run the model to obtain, pressure, total head and flow rates in the system.

5. You can use Table Selection to collect required information such as the head.

6. Under Table Selection, Head and Pressure are provided in Network Nodes whereas Flow Rate and Velocity can be found using Network Links (Figure 6)

Figure 6 Table Selection.

7. Data from Table Selection, can be copied to an excel file (Edit- Copy To)

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