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Short Answer Test 1 (SAT1) Template
For achieving high grades, make sure you have answered all underlined parts of the questions.
- Ensure proper paraphrasing to demonstr ate your understanding.
- Questions ar e not equally weighted.
1. Describe the process of protein synthesis (transcription and translation) starting in the nucleus until a functional protein has been made.
2. A boy with colour blindness, has a mother with normal colour vision and a father with colour blindness. Answer the following questions:
a. Did the boy inherit the gene for colour blindness from his mother or his father?
b. Explain your answer to question 2a by using a Punnett square to identify the source of the colour blindness gene that was passed on to this boy.
c. Explain this type of heredity.
3. Describe in detail the phases of the ovarian cycle (include in your answer all the hormones involved).
4. Describe the journey of the sperms through the female reproductive system until the combination of the maternal and paternal chromosomes has occurred.
Suggested literature:
Marieb, E.N., & Hoehn, K. (2019). Human anatomy and physiology (11th ed.). Pearson.
1. Describe the internal composition and the external structure of bacterial cells. Include in your answer, the size, shape, and the features of Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell walls.
2. Discuss how bacteria may develop resistance to antimicrobial medicines (discuss at least three mechanisms).
3. Explain the six-step sequence of reproduction, when a DNA virus invades a human cell.
4. a. Outline the exogenous sources of infections in health facilities.
b. Define the following three microbiological terms. Include an example of a micro-organism for each term:
- Mutualism:
- Commensalism:
- Parasitism:
c. Define antigenic variation and explain at least one way in which microbial antigens can be changed.
Suggested literature:
Lee, G., & Bishop, P. (2016). Microbiology and infection control for health professionals (6th ed.). Pearson.

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